11月13日-Final Week: Tuesday Afternoon/Final Week: Wednesday


最后一周:星期二下午/最后一周:星期三-Final Week: Tuesday Afternoon/Final Week: Wednesday

最后一周:星期二下午/最后一周:星期三-Final Week: Tuesday Afternoon/Final Week: Wednesday

As the long day of confrontation and teaching comes to an end, Jesus tells his disciples that his death is only two days away. Already the chief priests and elders are conspiring against him in the palace of the high priest. Aware that the festival is almost upon them, the conspirators are anxious to have Jesus killed before that time. Even as they plot how to snare Jesus, they are approached by Judas Iscariot, one of Christ’s chosen disciples.

For his own reasons, Judas has decided to betray Jesus, and has therefore come to bargain with the members of the council. Of course they are delighted at this unexpected assistance. The amount agreed to is 30 pieces of silver (which at this time is the approximate price of a slave). It is not clear whether Judas knows fully the serious consequences of the betrayal. Later evidence indicates that he may not have anticipated that Jesus would actually die as a result. Be that as it may, Judas is apparently both covetous and dishonest—this despite the fact that he has been acting as a kind of treasurer for the disciples.

The preceding events of this final week appear to be accounted for by the Gospel writers within the clear context of either Sunday, Monday, or Tuesday, just as they have been presented. The exact timing of what happens after those events, however, appears less certain. John in particular touches only lightly upon the events between Jesus’ triumphant entry and the so-called “last supper” which Jesus shares with his disciples. Referring to various public reactions during that time, John notes that, despite Jesus’ teaching and miraculous works, there are still many people who either disbelieve or are afraid to acknowledge their belief. Then John records what is apparently Jesus’ last public appeal before his subsequent arrest. As there is no evidence that these events occurred on any of the prior three days, they are set forth here as occurring on Wednesday, though that time frame is only speculative.

Of far greater significance at this point is the chronology related to the last supper, Jesus’ crucifixion, and his subsequent resurrection. Traditionally the last supper is believed to have occurred on Thursday evening, followed by the crucifixion on Friday afternoon and the resurrection on Sunday morning. However, such reckoning raises at least two questions. First, in an action-packed final week, what reason is there to believe that there would be a whole day of either actual inactivity or activity which is left unrecorded? Second, and far more important—if Jesus is crucified on Friday afternoon and thereafter hurriedly put into the tomb, how can there be sufficient time to match Jesus’ own prediction that he would remain in the tomb for three days and three nights before being resurrected? Even if one stretches imagination within the traditional time frame in order to find parts of three days, it is not possible to find three nights.

The resolution of both questions appears to be found in recognizing that the last supper took place on Wednesday evening, followed by the crucifixion and burial on Thursday. Acceptance of that assumption requires an understanding of the Passover, the Festival of Unleavened Bread, and the way in which the Jews reckon time. As for the reckoning of time, the Jewish day begins at sunset on the previous evening. This means, for example, that our Wednesday night is actually Thursday, and our Thursday night is actually Friday.

Passover is observed on the 14th day of the month of Nisan, corresponding to March–April. As noted earlier, Passover is observed in commemoration of the deliverance of the ancient Israelites from their Egyptian bondage. The name derives from the “passing over” of the Israelites when death came to the firstborn of each Egyptian family. As part of that same commemoration, Passover is followed by the seven-day Festival of Unleavened Bread, which reminds the Jews of their forefathers’ flight from Egypt, during which time the Israelites ate unleavened bread only. (It is common among the Jews of Jesus’ day to refer to both celebrations by only one name, either as “Passover” or as the “Festival of Unleavened Bread.”) By God’s direction (Leviticus 23 ), a lamb is to be slaughtered late on the 14th day (Passover) and the Passover meal eaten that evening, which would be the beginning of the 15th day, the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread. The entire 15th day is then to be observed as a special Sabbath, or high holy day, regardless of the day of the week on which it might fall in any given year. (If the 15th day is a Friday, then both that Friday and the next day, Saturday, are observed as Sabbaths.)

With that background the picture begins to come clear. Matthew, Mark, and Luke record the disciples’ preparation for the Passover on the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. That would place their preparations, then, at the beginning of the 14th day, which, of course, begins on the evening of the 13th day. (Among the preparations common on the evening of the 13th day is the removal of all leaven from the house.) Therefore it appears that the disciples assume they are preparing the upper room primarily for the special paschal meal which they expect to share with Jesus the following evening, and they apparently do not contemplate that the regular meal on the first night will in fact be their “last supper” with Jesus.

Although generally referring to the occasion as a part of the Passover celebration, Jesus seems to explain why it is important for him to eat with them on the night before the actual Passover meal. As will be seen, Jesus’ words are: “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God.” In referring to his suffering, Jesus is obviously anticipating that his own sacrificial death will take place later that day, preventing him from participating in the actual Passover supper.

John’s account eliminates any doubt that this supper occurred prior to the actual Passover meal. When Jesus tells Judas during the supper to do what he is about to do, some of the other disciples “thought Jesus was telling him to buy what was needed for the festival.” Furthermore, the Jews who have obtained Jesus’ arrest will not enter Pilate’s palace for fear that they will be ceremonially unclean, and therefore unable to eat the Passover. Most convincing is the fact that the day of Jesus’ crucifixion is plainly stated to be “the day of Preparation of the Passover”—the day on which the paschal lamb is slain for the Passover meal taken during the evening of that day.

The most meaningful result of moving away from the traditional timeframe is seeing how Jesus’ crucifixion becomes the perfect “type” of the Passover Lamb. Under Hebrew law, the paschal lamb is chosen on the tenth day and then “kept up” until the 14th day, when it is sacrificed for the sins of the people. If Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem is counted as the tenth day, Thursday would be the 14th day, and thus the day on which Jesus is crucified. Far more important than this possible parallel is the fact that Jesus, as the perfect Lamb of God, does not celebrate the Passover with some other ordinary sacrificial lamb, but rather becomes himself the Lamb who is slain—precisely at the appropriate hour!

There is therefore strong evidence that the last supper takes place on the evening prior to the Day of Preparation, which by modern reckoning would be Wednesday night. Proceeding upon that assumption, the events associated with this final Wednesday include not only Jesus’ last public teaching, but also the account of Peter and John finding the upper room and making preparations for the Passover celebration.

# 马太福音(MAT)
## 祭师长和民间的长老用计杀耶稣
[26:1] 耶稣说完了这一切的话,就对门徒说:
[26:2] 「你们知道,过两天是逾越节,人子将要被交给人,钉在十字架上。」
[26:3] 那时,祭司长和民间的长老,聚集在大祭司称为该亚法的院里。
[26:4] 大家商议要用诡计拿住耶稣杀他;
[26:5] 只是说:「当节的日子不可,恐怕民间生乱。」
## 浇极贵的香膏
[26:6] 耶稣在伯大尼长大痲疯的西门家里,
[26:7] 有一个女人拿着一玉瓶极贵的香膏来,趁耶稣坐席的时候,浇在他的头上。
[26:8] 门徒看见就很不喜悦,说:「何用这样的枉费呢!
[26:9] 这香膏可以卖许多钱,赒济穷人。」
[26:10] 耶稣看出他们的意思,就说:「为什么难为这女人呢?她在我身上作的是一件美事。
[26:11] 因为常有穷人和你们同在,只是你们不常有我。
[26:12] 她将这香膏浇在我身上,是为我安葬做的。
[26:13] 我实在告诉你们:普天之下,无论在什么地方传这福音,也要述说这女人所行的,作个记念。」
## 犹大卖耶稣
[26:14] 当下,十二门徒里有一个称为加略人犹大的,去见祭司长,说:
[26:15] 「我把他交给你们,你们愿意给我多少钱?」他们就给了他三十块钱。
[26:16] 从那时候,他就找机会要把耶稣交给他们。
## 豫备逾越节的筵席
[26:17] 除酵节的第一天,门徒来问耶稣说:「你吃逾越节的筵席,要我们在那里给你预备?」
[26:18] 耶稣说:「你们进城去,到某人那里,对他说,『夫子说:我的时候快到了,我与门徒要在你家里守逾越节。』」
[26:19] 门徒遵着耶稣所吩咐的,就去预备了逾越节的筵席。
# 马可福音(MRK)
[14:1] 过两天是逾越节,又是除酵节,祭司长和文士想法子怎么用诡计捉拿耶稣,杀他。
[14:2] 只是说:「当节的日子不可,恐怕百姓生乱。」
## 浇极贵的香膏
[14:3] 耶稣在伯大尼长大痲疯的西门家里坐席的时候,有一个女人拿着一玉瓶至贵的真哪哒香膏来,打破玉瓶,把膏浇在耶稣的头上。
[14:4] 有几个人心中很不喜悦,说:「何用这样枉费香膏呢?
[14:5] 这香膏可以卖三十多两银子赒济穷人。」他们就向那女人生气。
[14:6] 耶稣说:「由她吧!为什么难为她呢?她在我身上做的是一件美事。
[14:7] 因为常有穷人和你们同在,要向他们行善随时都可以;只是你们不常有我。
[14:8] 她所做的,是尽她所能的;她是为我安葬的事,把香膏预先浇在我身上。
[14:9] 我实在告诉你们:普天之下,无论在什么地方传这福音,也要述说这女人所作的,以为记念。」
## 犹大卖主
[14:10] 十二门徒之中,有一个加略人犹大去见祭司长,要把耶稣交给他们。
[14:11] 他们听见就欢喜,又应许给他银子。他就寻思如何得便,把耶稣交给他们。
## 豫备逾越节的筵席
[14:12] 除酵节的第一天,就是宰逾越羊羔的那一天,门徒对耶稣说:「你吃逾越节的筵席要我们往那里去预备呢?」
[14:13] 耶稣就打发两个门徒,对他们说:「你们进城去,必有人拿着一瓶水迎面而来,你们就跟着他。
[14:14] 他进那家去,你们就对那家的主人说:『夫子说:客房在那里?我与门徒好在那里吃逾越节的筵席。』
[14:15] 他必指给你们摆设整齐的一间大楼,你们就在那里为我们预备。」
[14:16] 门徒出去,进了城,所遇见的正如耶稣所说的。他们就预备了逾越节的筵席。
# 路加福音(LUK)
## 祭司长和文士用计要杀耶稣
[22:1] 除酵节又名逾越节近了。
[22:2] 祭司长和文士想法子怎么才能杀害耶稣,是因他们惧怕百姓。
## 犹大出卖耶稣
[22:3] 这时,撒但入了那称为加略人犹大的心,他本是十二门徒里的一个。
[22:4] 他去和祭司长并守殿官商量,怎么可以把耶稣交给他们。
[22:5] 他们欢喜,就约定给他银子。
[22:6] 他应允了,就找机会,要趁众人不在跟前的时候把耶稣交给他们。
## 门徒豫备逾越节的筵席
[22:7] 除酵节,须宰逾越羊羔的那一天到了。
[22:8] 耶稣打发彼得、约翰,说:「你们去为我们预备逾越节的筵席,好叫我们吃。」
[22:9] 他们问他说:「要我们在那里预备?」
[22:10] 耶稣说:「你们进了城,必有人拿着一瓶水迎面而来,你们就跟着他,到他所进的房子里去,
[22:11] 对那家的主人说:『夫子说:客房在那里?我与门徒好在那里吃逾越节的筵席。』
[22:12] 他必指给你们摆设整齐的一间大楼,你们就在那里预备。」
[22:13] 他们去了,所遇见的正如耶稣所说的。他们就预备了逾越节的筵席。
# 路加福音(LUK)
[21:37] 耶稣每日在殿里教训人,每夜出城在一座山,名叫橄榄山住宿。
[21:38] 众百姓清早上圣殿,到耶稣那里,要听他讲道。
# 约翰福音(JHN)
## 应验以赛亚的豫言
[12:37] 他虽然在他们面前行了许多神迹,他们还是不信他。
[12:38] 这是要应验先知以赛亚的话,说:『主啊!我们所传的有谁信呢?主的膀臂向谁显露呢?』
[12:39] 他们所以不能信,因为以赛亚又说:
[12:40] 『主叫他们瞎了眼,硬了心;免得他们眼睛看见,心里明白,回转过来,我就医治他们。』
[12:41] 以赛亚因为看见他的荣耀,就指着他说这话。
[12:42] 虽然如此,官长中却有好些信他的;只因法利赛人的缘故,就不承认,恐怕被赶出会堂。
[12:43] 这是因他们爱人的荣耀过于爱神的荣耀。
## 信子就是信父
[12:44] 耶稣大声说:「信我的,不是信我,乃是信那差我来的。
[12:45] 人看见我,就是看见那差我来的。
[12:46] 我到世上来乃是光,叫凡信我的,不住在黑暗里。
[12:47] 若有人听见我的话不遵守,我不审判他;我来本不是要审判世界,乃是要拯救世界。
[12:48] 弃绝我不领受我话的人,有审判他的;就是我所讲的道,在末日要审判他。
[12:49] 因为我没有凭着自己讲,惟有差我来的父已经给我命令,叫我说什么、讲什么。
[12:50] 我也知道他的命令就是永生。故此,我所讲的话正是照着父对我所说的。」

By: Lydia ٩(●˙▿˙●)۶…⋆ฺ

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