2月25日-Purification

利未记、民数记

N. 洁净-Purification   
1. 有关分娩-After Childbirth 
2. 有关大麻风-For Leprosy 
3. 有关漏症-For Discharges 
4. 关于死亡-Concerning Death 

N. 洁净-Purification

Partially for purposes of maintaining proper health conditions, and partially for teaching proper personal conduct, but primarily for promoting the idea of holiness, the Laws of Moses designate certain types of ceremonial uncleanness. These various types of uncleanness are associated with diet, childbirth, bodily emissions and discharges, numerous diseases, and contact with the dead. In normal law codes the regulations would most properly fit within a health-and-general-welfare section. However, in a theocratic code such as this, there are religious and ceremonial aspects which more properly fit within the present section. Therefore a certain amount of overlapping must take place at this point. Regulations pertaining primarily to ceremonial purification for uncleanness will be listed here, while other related regulations will be presented in other sections.

1. After Childbirth

Each woman is required to purify her uncleanness after childbirth. This may be associated with the sin of Eve and its consequence of pain for all women giving birth. Or it may be that in order to bring a new child into the human family without sin, the “vessel” through which it comes must itself be made clean. Certainly there is no hint that either the child, or even the act which brought about the birth, is itself unclean.

# 利未记(LEV)
## 妇人生子成洁之例
[12:1] 耶和华对摩西说:
[12:2] 「你晓谕以色列人说:『若有妇人怀孕生男孩,她就不洁净七天,像在月经污秽的日子不洁净一样。
[12:3] 第八天要给婴孩行割礼。
[12:4] 妇人在产血不洁之中,要家居三十三天。她洁净的日子未满,不可摸圣物,也不可进入圣所。
[12:5] 她若生女孩,就不洁净两个七天,像污秽的时候一样,要在产血不洁之中,家居六十六天。
[12:6] 满了洁净的日子,无论是为男孩是为女孩,她要把一岁的羊羔为燔祭,一只雏鸽或是一只斑鸠为赎罪祭,带到会幕门口交给祭司。
[12:7] 祭司要献在耶和华面前,为她赎罪,她的血源就洁净了。这条例是为生育的妇人,无论是生男,生女。
[12:8] 她的力量若不够献一只羊羔,她就要取两只斑鸠或是两只雏鸽,一只为燔祭,一只为赎罪祭。祭司要为她赎罪,她就洁净了。』」

2. 有关大麻风-For Leprosy

The term “leprosy” is used generically to refer to any number of skin diseases, molds, or defects in people, garments, or even houses. While specific diagnosis and treatment is regulated in the health section, the various means of purifying the ceremonial uncleanness are now given.

# 利未记(LEV)
## 患大痲疯者成洁之例
[14:1] 耶和华晓谕摩西说:
[14:2] 「长大痲疯得洁净的日子,其例乃是这样:要带他去见祭司,
[14:3] 祭司要出到营外察看,若见他的大痲疯痊愈了,
[14:4] 就要吩咐人为那求洁净的,拿两只洁净的活鸟和香柏木、朱红色线,并牛膝草来。
[14:5] 祭司要吩咐用瓦器盛活水,把一只鸟宰在上面。
[14:6] 至于那只活鸟,祭司要把牠和香柏木、朱红色线,并牛膝草,一同蘸于宰在活水上的鸟血中,
[14:7] 用以在那长大痲疯求洁净的人身上洒七次,就定他为洁净,又把活鸟放在田野里。
[14:8] 求洁净的人当洗衣服,剃去毛发,用水洗澡,就洁净了。然后可以进营,只是要在自己的帐棚外居住七天。
[14:9] 第七天,再把头上所有的头发与胡须、眉毛并全身的毛都剃了;又要洗衣服,用水洗身,就洁净了。
[14:10] 第八天,他要取两只没有残疾的公羊羔和一只没有残疾、一岁的母羊羔,又要把调油的细面伊法十分之三为素祭,并油一罗革,一同取来。
[14:11] 行洁净之礼的祭司,要将那求洁净的人和这些东西安置在会幕门口耶和华面前。
[14:12] 祭司要取一只公羊羔献为赎愆祭,和那一罗革油一同作摇祭,在耶和华面前摇一摇。
[14:13] 把公羊羔宰于圣地,就是宰赎罪祭牲和燔祭牲之地。赎愆祭要归祭司,与赎罪祭一样,是至圣的。
[14:14] 祭司要取些赎愆祭牲的血,抹在求洁净人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,并右脚的大拇指上。
[14:15] 祭司要从那一罗革油中取些倒在自己的左手掌里,
[14:16] 把右手的一个指头蘸在左手的油里,在耶和华面前用指头弹七次。
[14:17] 将手里所剩的油,抹在那求洁净人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,并右脚的大拇指上,就是抹在赎愆祭牲的血上。
[14:18] 祭司手里所剩的油,要抹在那求洁净人的头上,在耶和华面前为他赎罪。
[14:19] 祭司要献赎罪祭,为那本不洁净求洁净的人赎罪,然后要宰燔祭牲。
[14:20] 把燔祭和素祭献在坛上为他赎罪,他就洁净了。
[14:21] 他若贫穷不能预备够数,就要取一只公羊羔作赎愆祭,可以摇一摇,为他赎罪;也要把调油的细面伊法十分之一为素祭,和油一罗革一同取来。
[14:22] 又照他的力量取两只斑鸠或是两只雏鸽,一只作赎罪祭,一只作燔祭。
[14:23] 第八天,要为洁净,把这些带到会幕门口耶和华面前,交给祭司。
[14:24] 祭司要把赎愆祭的羊羔和那一罗革油一同作摇祭,在耶和华面前摇一摇。
[14:25] 要宰了赎愆祭的羊羔,取些赎愆祭牲的血,抹在那求洁净人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,并右脚的大拇指上。
[14:26] 祭司要把些油倒在自己的左手掌里,
[14:27] 把左手里的油,在耶和华面前用右手的一个指头弹七次。
[14:28] 又把手里的油,抹些在那求洁净人的右耳垂上和右手的大拇指上,并右脚的大拇指上,就是抹赎愆祭之血的原处。
[14:29] 祭司手里所剩的油,要抹在那求洁净人的头上,在耶和华面前为他赎罪。
[14:30] 那人又要照他的力量献上一只斑鸠或是一只雏鸽,
[14:31] 就是他所能办的,一只为赎罪祭,一只为燔祭,与素祭一同献上。祭司要在耶和华面前为他赎罪。」
[14:32] 这是那有大痲疯灾病的人,不能将关乎得洁净之物预备够数的条例。

3. 有关漏症-For Discharges

Bodily discharges and emissions are set forth as forms of uncleanness, even if they issue involuntarily. They may or may not have a direct relation to moral impurity, though many diseases are in fact the result of sin. Of more importance is any perceived uncleanness and the need for purity of the body as well as of the soul. While specific regulations pertaining to various secretions are included in the health section, the methods of ceremonial cleansing which require action by a priest are set forth at this point.

# 利未记(LEV)
[15:13] 患漏症的人痊愈了,就要为洁净自己计算七天,也必洗衣服,用活水洗身,就洁净了。
[15:14] 第八天,要取两只斑鸠或是两只雏鸽,来到会幕门口耶和华面前,把鸟交给祭司。
[15:15] 祭司要献上一只为赎罪祭,一只为燔祭,因那人患的漏症,祭司要在耶和华面前为他赎罪。
# 利未记(LEV)
[15:28] 女人的漏症若好了,就要计算七天,然后才为洁净。
[15:29] 第八天,要取两只斑鸠或是两只雏鸽,带到会幕门口给祭司。
[15:30] 祭司要献一只为赎罪祭,一只为燔祭,因那人血漏不洁,祭司要在耶和华面前为她赎罪。

4. 关于死亡-Concerning Death

Death has almost universally been associated with sin, so it is no surprise to find regulations defining uncleanness and requirements for sacrifices when one has come into contact with the dead. Physical contact with the dead has great significance for a nation whose God is not merely a piece of stone or wood: Death must not be permitted to contaminate worship of a living God who has given life to all living things.

# 民数记(NUM)
[19:11] 摸了人死尸的,就必七天不洁净。
[19:12] 那人到第三天,要用这除污秽的水洁净自己,第七天就洁净了。他若在第三天不洁净自己,第七天就不洁净了。
[19:13] 凡摸了人死尸、不洁净自己的,就玷污了耶和华的帐幕,这人必从以色列中剪除;因为那除污秽的水没有洒在他身上,他就为不洁净,污秽还在他身上。
[19:14] 人死在帐棚里的条例乃是这样:凡进那帐棚的和一切在帐棚里的,都必七天不洁净。
[19:15] 凡敞口的器皿,就是没有扎上盖的,也是不洁净。
[19:16] 无论何人在田野里摸了被刀杀的,或是尸首,或是人的骨头,或是坟墓,就要七天不洁净。
[19:17] 要为这不洁净的人拿些烧成的除罪灰放在器皿里,倒上活水。
[19:18] 必当有一个洁净的人拿牛膝草蘸在这水中,把水洒在帐棚上,和一切器皿,并帐棚内的众人身上,又洒在摸了骨头,或摸了被杀的,或摸了自死的,或摸了坟墓的那人身上。
[19:19] 第三天和第七天,洁净的人要洒水在不洁净的人身上,第七天就使他成为洁净。那人要洗衣服,用水洗澡,到晚上就洁净了。
[19:20] 但那污秽而不洁净自己的,要将他从会中剪除,因为他玷污了耶和华的圣所。除污秽的水没有洒在他身上,他是不洁净的。
[19:21] 这要给你们作为永远的定例。并且那洒除污秽水的人要洗衣服。凡摸除污秽水的,必不洁净到晚上。
[19:22] 不洁净人所摸的一切物就不洁净,摸了这物的人必不洁净到晚上。」
# 民数记(NUM)
## 命焚红母牛为灰以洁不洁之民
[19:1] 耶和华晓谕摩西、亚伦说:
[19:2] 「耶和华命定律法中的一条律例乃是这样说:你要吩咐以色列人,把一只没有残疾、未曾负轭、纯红的母牛牵到你这里来,
[19:3] 交给祭司以利亚撒,他必牵到营外,人就把牛宰在他面前。
[19:4] 祭司以利亚撒要用指头蘸这牛的血,向会幕前面弹七次。
[19:5] 人要在他眼前把这母牛焚烧,牛的皮、肉、血、粪都要焚烧。
[19:6] 祭司要把香柏木、牛膝草、朱红色线都丢在烧牛的火中。
[19:7] 祭司必不洁净到晚上,要洗衣服,用水洗身,然后可以进营。
[19:8] 烧牛的人必不洁净到晚上,也要洗衣服,用水洗身。
[19:9] 必有一个洁净的人收起母牛的灰,存在营外洁净的地方,为以色列会众调作除污秽的水。这本是除罪的。
[19:10] 收起母牛灰的人,必不洁净到晚上,要洗衣服。这要给以色列人和寄居在他们中间的外人,作为永远的定例。

Smith, F. LaGard. The Daily Bible® - In Chronological Order (NIV®) . Harvest House Publishers. Kindle 版本.

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