2月18日-THE LAWS OF MOSES (Ca. 1450–1400 B.C.)

申命记、出埃及记、利未记

I. Religious and Ceremonial Laws At the cornerstone of all the laws is the first commandment.第一诫是一切律法的基石

A. Laws Against Idolatry and Paganism 禁止偶像崇拜和异教的法律

介绍律法-Introduction to the Laws

At this point in his second address Moses begins an exposition of principal laws, some of which he gives here for the first time—or at least they are recorded here for the first time—and some of which he has already given but now further explains or reemphasizes. (As indicated earlier, all the laws previously given have been held in abeyance until this section in order to bring the total together in one collection organized by subject matter.) Although these laws are traditionally known as the Laws of Moses, it is of course God who is their source. However, because there will be other laws of Israel as the nation becomes more fully developed, it is appropriate to distinguish these early commandments by referring to them as Moses’ laws.

Most of the laws are set forth in the form of statutes. Others are in the nature of case decisions or ethical duties. Some of the laws are given to meet only temporary or immediate needs, while others are intended to last for centuries. The laws are to be read to the people at regular times throughout each year in order that each person can learn them and have no excuse for not obeying them.

The explicit purpose for each law is rarely given. However, most of the laws are ultimately designed to teach the Israelites to respect and honor God, to make them holy and aware of their separateness as a specially chosen people, and to learn respect for the rights of their neighbors. Laws regulating personal injury, or even diet, are no less significant than those regulating offerings and sacrifices, for all laws are essentially religious laws. All are given by a personal God and Lawgiver to whom the people have sworn allegiance and promised obedience.

The laws of Israel may sometimes appear to be cruel or unnecessarily harsh, particularly the penalties which accompany given offenses. Yet what may appear to be cruel and unusual in modern times must be viewed in the context of the life and times in which the Israelites are living. Death and suffering are very much a reality to all people of this time, and in the surrounding nations wicked kings practice unspeakable cruelties in ruling their people. Thus the laws given to Moses are designed to lift the national consciousness and impose a high level of ethical conduct. Even the death penalty is an elevating concept in teaching the value of human life, and the procedural safeguards which are imposed insure a measure of unparalleled fairness. In fact, the concepts of due process and equal justice found within this legal system will be incorporated even centuries later into enlightened systems of modern law.

The organization of the laws as presented in this section is purely subjective, and therefore should not be taken as an authoritative structuring. Because of the fact that in a theocratic legal system all laws are basically religious in nature, any categorization necessarily involves a certain amount of overlapping coverage. For example, laws pertaining to health and quarantine overlap with purification rites, which properly belong with other rules of religious ceremony. Therefore, as often as possible, such overlapping will be indicated.

I. Religious and Ceremonial Laws At the cornerstone of all the laws is the first commandment.第一诫是一切律法的基石

# 申命记(DEU)
[5:5] (那时我站在耶和华和你们中间,要将耶和华的话传给你们,因为你们惧怕那火,没有上山),
[5:6] 说:『我是耶和华你的神,曾将你从埃及地为奴之家领出来。
[5:7] 除了我以外,你不可有别的神。

The second commandment insures allegiance to the one true and living God.

# 申命记(DEU)
## 复述十诫
[5:8] 不可为自己雕刻偶像。也不可作什么形像,仿佛上天、下地和地底下水中的百物。
[5:9] 不可跪拜那些像,也不可事奉它,因为我耶和华你的神是忌邪的神。恨我的,我必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三四代。
[5:10] 爱我、守我诫命的,我必向他们发慈爱,直到千代。

A. Laws Against Idolatry and Paganism-禁止偶像崇拜和异教的法律

# 出埃及记(EXO)
[22:20] 祭祀别神,不单单祭祀耶和华的,那人必要灭绝。
# 出埃及记(EXO)
[23:13] 凡我对你们说的话,你们要谨守。别神的名你不可提,也不可从你口中传说。
# 出埃及记(EXO)
[34:17] 不可为自己铸造神像。
# 利未记(LEV)
[19:4] 你们不可偏向虚无的神,也不可为自己铸造神像。我是耶和华你们的神。
# 利未记(LEV)
## 遵命者降之福
[26:1] 你们不可作什么虚无的神像,不可立雕刻的偶像或是柱像;也不可在你们的地上安什么錾成的石像,向它跪拜,因为我是耶和华你们的神。
# 申命记(DEU)
[16:21] 你为耶和华你的神筑坛,不可在坛旁栽什么树木作为木偶;
[16:22] 也不可为自己设立柱像,这是耶和华你神所恨恶的。
# 利未记(LEV)
## 禁以子女献摩洛
[20:1] 耶和华对摩西说:
[20:2] 「你还要晓谕以色列人说:『凡以色列人,或是在以色列中寄居的外人,把自己的儿女献给摩洛的,总要治死他。本地人要用石头把他打死。
[20:3] 我也要向那人变脸,把他从民中剪除,因为他把儿女献给摩洛,玷污我的圣所,亵渎我的圣名。
[20:4] 那人把儿女献给摩洛,本地人若佯为不见,不把他治死,
[20:5] 我就要向这人和他的家变脸,把他和一切随他与摩洛行邪淫的人都从民中剪除。
# 利未记(LEV)
[18:21] 不可使你的儿女经火归与摩洛,也不可亵渎你神的名。我是耶和华。
# 申命记(DEU)
## 禁为死者划身剃额
[14:1] 你们是耶和华你们神的儿女。不可为死人用刀划身,也不可将额上剃光,
[14:2] 因为你归耶和华你神为圣洁的民,耶和华从地上的万民中,拣选你特作自己的子民。
# 利未记(LEV)
[19:27] 头的周围不可剃,胡须的周围也不可损坏。
[19:28] 不可为死人用刀划身、也不可在身上刺花纹。我是耶和华。
# 申命记(DEU)
[12:29] 耶和华你神将你要去赶出的国民从你面前剪除,你得了他们的地居住。
[12:30] 那时就要谨慎,不可在他们除灭之后,随从他们的恶俗,陷入网罗;也不可访问他们的神说:『这些国民怎样事奉他们的神,我也要照样行。』
## 戒受引诱从事他神
[12:31] 你不可向耶和华你的神这样行,因为他们向他们的神行了耶和华所憎嫌、所恨恶的一切事;甚至将自己的儿女用火焚烧,献与他们的神。
# 申命记(DEU)
[13:6] 你的同胞弟兄,或是你的儿女,或是你怀中的妻,或是如同你性命的朋友,若暗中引诱你,说:『我们不如去事奉你和你列祖素来所不认识的别神,
[13:7] 是你四围列国的神。』无论是离你近、离你远,从地这边到地那边的神,
[13:8] 你不可依从他,也不可听从他。眼不可顾惜他,你不可怜恤他,也不可遮庇他。
[13:9] 总要杀他;你先下手,然后众民也下手,将他治死。
[13:10] 要用石头打死他,因为他想要勾引你离开那领你出埃及地为奴之家的耶和华你的神。
[13:11] 以色列众人都要听见害怕,就不敢在你们中间再行这样的恶了。
[13:12] 在耶和华你神所赐你居住的各城中,你若听人说:『有些匪类从你们中间的一座城出来勾引本城的居民,说:我们不如去事奉你们素来所不认识的别神。』
[13:13] *
[13:14] 你就要探听、查究,细细的访问,果然是真,准有这可憎恶的事行在你们中间,
[13:15] 你必要用刀杀那城里的居民,把城里所有的,连牲畜都用刀杀尽。
[13:16] 你从那城里所夺的财物都要堆积在街市上,用火将城和其内所夺的财物都在耶和华你神面前烧尽。那城就永为荒堆,不可再建造。
[13:17] 那当毁灭的物,连一点都不可粘你的手。你要听从耶和华你神的话,遵守我今日所吩咐你的一切诫命,行耶和华你神眼中看为正的事,耶和华就必转意,不发烈怒,恩待你、怜恤你,照他向你列祖所起的誓使你人数增多。
[13:18] *
# 申命记(DEU)
[17:2] 在你们中间,在耶和华你神所赐你的诸城中,无论那座城里,若有人,或男或女,行耶和华你神眼中看为恶的事,违背了他的约,
[17:3] 去事奉敬拜别神,或拜日头,或拜月亮,或拜天象,是主不曾吩咐的;
[17:4] 有人告诉你,你也听见了,就要细细的探听;果然是真,准有这可憎恶的事行在以色列中,
[17:5] 你就要将行这恶事的男人或女人拉到城门外,用石头将他打死。
[17:6] 要凭两三个人的口作见证,将那当死的人治死;不可凭一个人的口作见证将他治死。
[17:7] 见证人要先下手,然后众民也下手,将他治死。这样,就把那恶从你们中间除掉。
# 申命记(DEU)
## 献祭当诣耶和华选择之处
[12:1] 你们存活于世的日子,在耶和华你们列祖的神所赐你们为业的地上,要谨守遵行的律例典章乃是这些:
[12:2] 你们要将所赶出的国民事奉神的各地方,无论是在高山、在小山、在各青翠树下,都毁坏了。
[12:3] 也要拆毁他们的祭坛,打碎他们的柱像,用火焚烧他们的木偶,砍下他们雕刻的神像,并将其名从那地方除灭。
[12:4] 你们不可照他们那样事奉耶和华你们的神。
[12:5] 但耶和华你们的神从你们各支派中,选择何处为立他名的居所,你们就当往那里去求问;
[12:6] 将你们的燔祭、平安祭,十分取一之物和手中的举祭,并还愿祭、甘心祭,以及牛群、羊群中头生的,都奉到那里。
[12:7] 在那里,耶和华你们神的面前,你们和你们的家属都可以吃;并且因你手所办的一切事,蒙耶和华你的神赐福,就都欢乐。
[12:8] 我们今日在这里所行的,是各人行自己眼中看为正的事,你们将来不可这样行。
[12:9] 因为你们还没有到耶和华你神所赐你的安息地,所给你的产业。
[12:10] 但你们过了约但河,得以住在耶和华你们神使你们承受为业之地,又使你们太平,不被四围的一切仇敌扰乱,安然居住。
[12:11] 那时要将我所吩咐你们的燔祭、平安祭,十分取一之物和手中的举祭,并向耶和华许愿献的一切美祭,都奉到耶和华你们神所选择要立为他名的居所。
[12:12] 你们和儿女、仆婢,并住在你们城里无分、无业的利未人都要在耶和华你们的神面前欢乐。
[12:13] 你要谨慎,不可在你所看中的各处献燔祭;
[12:14] 惟独耶和华从你那一支派中所选择的地方,你就要在那里献燔祭,行我一切所吩咐你的。
[12:15] 然而在你各城里都可以照耶和华你神所赐你的福分,随心所欲,宰牲吃肉;无论洁净人、不洁净人都可以吃,就如吃羚羊与鹿一般。
[12:17] 你的五谷、新酒和油的十分之一,或是牛群、羊群中头生的,或是你许愿献的,甘心献的,或是手中的举祭,都不可在你城里吃;
[12:18] 但要在耶和华你的神面前吃,在耶和华你神所要选择的地方,你和儿女、仆婢,并住在你城里的利未人都可以吃。也要因你手所办的,在耶和华你神面前欢乐。
[12:19] 你要谨慎,在你所住的地方,永不可丢弃利未人。
[12:20] 耶和华你的神照他所应许,扩张你境界的时候,你心里想要吃肉,说:『我要吃肉』,就可以随心所欲的吃肉。
[12:21] 耶和华你神所选择要立他名的地方若离你太远,就可以照我所吩咐的,将耶和华赐给你的牛羊取些宰了,可以随心所欲在你城里吃。
[12:22] 你吃那肉,要像吃羚羊与鹿一般,无论洁净人、不洁净人都可以吃。
[12:26] 只是你分别为圣的物和你的还愿祭,要奉到耶和华所选择的地方去。
[12:27] 你的燔祭,连肉带血,都要献在耶和华你神的坛上。平安祭的血要倒在耶和华你神的坛上;平安祭的肉你自己可以吃。
[12:28] 你要谨守听从我所吩咐的一切话,行耶和华你神眼中看为善、看为正的事,这样,你和你的子孙就可以永远享福。

Smith, F. LaGard. The Daily Bible® - In Chronological Order (NIV®) . Harvest House Publishers. Kindle 版本.

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