1月7日-Appearance of Heavenly Visitors

创世记18-19章:

第一部分:从天上而来的访客-Appearance of Heavenly Visitors:创世记18章1-15节[Gen.18:1-15];
第二部分:所多玛和蛾摩拉的毁灭-Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah:创世记18章16-19章29节[Gen.18:16-19:29];
第三部分:罗得女儿的计划-The Scheme of Lot’s Daughters:创世记17章[Gen.19:30-38]。

从天上而来的访客-Appearance of Heavenly Visitors

Not long after Abraham has responded to God’s instructions regarding circumcision, God appears to Abraham in the form of a human visitor. With this manifestation of God are two created angels, also in human form. It is not clear whether Abraham immediately recognizes his Lord as being more than simply a personage of superior authority. If not, the Visitor’s divine nature begins to unfold to Abraham when the Visitor seems to know not only Sarah’s name but also the innermost thoughts of her heart. When God announces that Sarah will soon bear a son, Sarah, who has been listening from the tent, laughs with disbelief, though perhaps with hopeful anticipation as well. When God questions her laugh, Sarah impulsively denies any expression of doubt. But when God insists that she is not telling the truth, Sarah stands silent and fearful in recognition that this heavenly Visitor has correctly perceived her disbelief. The incarnation of God on this occasion, and his announcement of a clearly supernatural birth, are both predictive of the promised spiritual heir to Abraham. And the freedom and joy of fellowship between God and man is witnessed in Abraham’s hospitality to his heavenly guests, who now appear to Abraham as he relaxes in his tent, probably after his own midday meal.

《创世记》

[18:1] 耶和华在幔利橡树那里向亚伯拉罕显现出来。那时正热,亚伯拉罕坐在帐棚门口,

[18:2] 举目观看,见有三个人在对面站著。他一见,就从帐棚门口跑去迎接他们,俯伏在地,

[18:3] 说:「我主,我若在你眼前蒙恩,求你不要离开仆人往前去。

[18:4] 容我拿点水来,你们洗洗脚,在树下歇息歇息。

[18:5] 我再拿一点饼来,你们可以加添心力,然后往前去。你们既到仆人这里来,理当如此。」他们说:「就照你说的行吧。」

[18:6] 亚伯拉罕急忙进帐棚见撒拉,说:「你速速拿三细亚细面调和做饼。」

[18:7] 亚伯拉罕又跑到牛群里,牵了一只又嫩又好的牛犊来,交给仆人,仆人急忙预备好了。

[18:8] 亚伯拉罕又取了奶油和奶,并预备好的牛犊来,摆在他们面前,自己在树下站在旁边,他们就吃了。

[18:9] 他们问亚伯拉罕说:「你妻子撒拉在哪里?」他说:「在帐棚里。」

[18:10] 三人中有一位说:「到明年这时候,我必要回到你这里;你的妻子撒拉必生一个儿子。」撒拉在那人后边的帐棚门口也听见了这话。

[18:11] 亚伯拉罕和撒拉年纪老迈,撒拉的月经已断绝了。

[18:12] 撒拉心里暗笑,说:「我既已衰败,我主也老迈,岂能有这喜事呢?」

[18:13] 耶和华对亚伯拉罕说:「撒拉为甚么暗笑,说:『我既已年老,果真能生养吗?』

[18:14] 耶和华岂有难成的事吗?到了日期,明年这时候,我必回到你这里,撒拉必生一个儿子。」

[18:15] 撒拉就害怕,不承认,说:「我没有笑。」那位说:「不然,你实在笑了。」

所多玛和蛾摩拉的毁灭-Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

If God is perturbed by Sarah’s impulsive deception, it is nothing to compare with the righteous wrath he is soon to display against the wicked cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Jordan Plain, presumably near what is today known as the Dead Sea. It is in Sodom that Abraham’s nephew, Lot, lives with his wife and two daughters. So it is understandable that, when God tells Abraham he is going to destroy Sodom, Abraham should plead that at least the righteous in Sodom be saved. But Abraham’s humble, yet bold, intercession with God extends to even those outside Lot’s family, should they be found righteous. God’s response to Abraham’s calculated bargaining reveals God’s sublime righteousness and mercy. God’s extraordinary judgment against Sodom is apparently prompted by an uncommon wickedness, made all the more repulsive because of the unnaturalness, violence, and presumptuousness with which its inhabitants’ lives are filled. An example of their wickedness is found in the way in which the two angels are received as they arrive in Sodom after their visit with Abraham. When Lot shares with them the hospitality and protection of his home, the men of Sodom demand that Lot release to them the angels, whom they presume to be normal men, so that they might use the angels for sexual perversion. It is because of this incident that the practice of homosexuality has ever since been associated with the Sodomites, although this particular depravity is not the only one in which they engaged. Even Lot seems not to have escaped the influence of Sodom’s wickedness. Although Lot here extends hospitality to strangers and defends them courageously when they are threatened, his character is impugned when he offers to give his own daughters to the Sodomites for their pleasure in exchange for the safety of his guests. And when the angels tell of the impending destruction, Lot is hesitant to leave Sodom, perhaps because of undue attachment to his material possessions. After being practically dragged out of the city by the angels, Lot, his wife, and their two daughters are told by God to run for their lives and not to look back. However, Lot’s wife, who is apparently convinced but not converted, turns to view the destruction of the cities in the plain and is herself destroyed. Whereas Sodom and Gomorrah are consumed with a rain of what may have been burning pitch or sulfur, Lot’s wife turns into a pillar of salt. This account of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah contains a wealth of insight into man’s sinful state, as well as God’s judgment and mercy. It shows that God’s judgment, although markedly righteous, is catastrophic, unexpected, and certainly complete. Thus it calls sinful man to flee from his own unrighteousness, without turning back to inevitable moral destruction, but persevering until he has reached the safety of God’s promised rest. It is perhaps with these lessons in mind that, as the three heavenly visitors now set out for Sodom, God anticipates the need to tell Abraham what he is about to do. As the one who is to become the father of God’s chosen nation, Abraham needs to witness for himself the awesome judgment of God upon those who practice wickedness, and pass on to future generations how terrible the consequences of sin really are.

《创世记》

[18:16] 三人就从那里起行,向所多玛观看,亚伯拉罕也与他们同行,要送他们一程。

[18:17] 耶和华说:「我所要做的事岂可瞒著亚伯拉罕呢?

[18:18] 亚伯拉罕必要成为强大的国;地上的万国都必因他得福。

[18:19] 我眷顾他,为要叫他吩咐他的众子和他的眷属遵守我的道,秉公行义,使我所应许亚伯拉罕的话都成就了。」

[18:20] 耶和华说:「所多玛和蛾摩拉的罪恶甚重,声闻於我。

[18:21] 我现在要下去,察看他们所行的,果然尽像那达到我耳中的声音一样吗?若是不然,我也必知道。」

[18:22] 二人转身离开那里,向所多玛去;但亚伯拉罕仍旧站在耶和华面前。

[18:23] 亚伯拉罕近前来,说:「无论善恶,你都要剿灭吗?

[18:24] 假若那城里有五十个义人,你还剿灭那地方吗?不为城里这五十个义人饶恕其中的人吗?

[18:25] 将义人与恶人同杀,将义人与恶人一样看待,这断不是你所行的。审判全地的主岂不行公义吗?」

[18:26] 耶和华说:「我若在所多玛城里见有五十个义人,我就为他们的缘故饶恕那地方的众人。」

[18:27] 亚伯拉罕说:「我虽然是灰尘,还敢对主说话。

[18:28] 假若这五十个义人短了五个,你就因为短了五个毁灭全城吗?」他说:「我在那里若见有四十五个,也不毁灭那城。」

[18:29] 亚伯拉罕又对他说:「假若在那里见有四十个怎么样呢?」他说:「为这四十个的缘故,我也不做这事。」

[18:30] 亚伯拉罕说:「求主不要动怒,容我说,假若在那里见有三十个怎么样呢?」他说:「我在那里若见有三十个,我也不不做这事。」

[18:31] 亚伯拉罕说:「我还敢对主说话,假若在那里见有二十个怎么样呢?」他说:「为这二十个的缘故,我也不毁灭那城。」

[18:32] 亚伯拉罕说:「求主不要动怒,我再说这一次,假若在那里见有十个呢?」他说:「为这十个的缘故,我也不毁灭那城。」

[18:33] 耶和华与亚伯拉罕说完了话就走了;亚伯拉罕也回到自己的地方去了。

[19:1] 那两个天使晚上到了所多玛;罗得正坐在所多玛城门口,看见他们,就起来迎接,脸伏於地下拜,

[19:2] 说:「我主啊,请你们到仆人家里洗洗脚,住一夜,清早起来再走。」他们说:「不!我们要在街上过夜。」

[19:3] 罗得切切地请他们,他们这才进去,到他屋里。罗得为他们预备筵席,烤无酵饼,他们就吃了。

[19:4] 他们还没有躺下,所多玛城里各处的人,连老带少,都来围住那房子,

[19:5] 呼叫罗得说:「今日晚上到你这里来的人在哪里呢?把他们带出来,任我们所为。」

[19:6] 罗得出来,把门关上,到众人那里,

[19:7] 说:「众弟兄,请你们不要做这恶事。

[19:8] 我有两个女儿,还是处女,容我领出来,任凭你们的心愿而行;只是这两个人既然到我舍下,不要向他们做甚么。」

[19:9] 众人说:「退去吧!」又说:「这个人来寄居,还想要作官哪!现在我们要害你比害他们更甚。」众人就向前拥挤罗得,要攻破房门。

[19:10] 只是那二人伸出手来,将罗得拉进屋去,把门关上,

[19:11] 并且使门外的人,无论老少,眼都昏迷;他们摸来摸去,总寻不著房门。

[19:12] 二人对罗得说:「你这里还有甚么人吗?无论是女婿是儿女,和这城中一切属你的人,你都要将他们从这地方带出去。

[19:13] 我们要毁灭这地方;因为城内罪恶的声音在耶和华面前甚大,耶和华差我们来,要毁灭这地方。」

[19:14] 罗得就出去,告诉娶了(或译:将要娶)他女儿的女婿们说:「你们起来离开这地方,因为耶和华要毁灭这城。」他女婿们却以为他说的是戏言。

[19:15] 天明了,天使催逼罗得说:「起来!带著你的妻子和你在这里的两个女儿出去,免得你因这城里的罪恶同被剿灭。」

[19:16] 但罗得迟延不走。二人因为耶和华怜恤罗得,就拉著他的手和他妻子的手,并他两个女儿的手,把他们领出来,安置在城外;

[19:17] 领他们出来以后,就说:「逃命吧!不可回头看,也不可在平原站住。要往山上逃跑,免得你被剿灭。」

[19:18] 罗得对他们说:「我主啊,不要如此!

[19:19] 你仆人已经在你眼前蒙恩;你又向我显出莫大的慈爱,救我的性命。我不能逃到山上去,恐怕这灾祸临到我,我便死了。

[19:20] 看哪,这座城又小又近,容易逃到,这不是一个小的吗?求你容我逃到那里,我的性命就得存活。」

[19:21] 天使对他说:「这事我也应允你;我不倾覆你所说的这城。

[19:22] 你要速速地逃到那城;因为你还没有到那里,我不能做甚么。」因此那城名叫琐珥(就是小的意思)。

[19:23] 罗得到了琐珥,日头已经出来了。

[19:24] 当时,耶和华将硫磺与火从天上耶和华那里降与所多玛和蛾摩拉,

[19:25] 把那些城和全平原,并城里所有的居民,连地上生长的,都毁灭了。

[19:26] 罗得的妻子在后边回头一看,就变成了一根盐柱。

[19:27] 亚伯拉罕清早起来,到了他从前站在耶和华面前的地方,

[19:28] 向所多玛和蛾摩拉与平原的全地观看,不料,那地方烟气上腾,如同烧窑一般。

[19:29] 当神毁灭平原诸城的时候,他记念亚伯拉罕,正在倾覆罗得所住之城的时候,就打发罗得从倾覆之中出来。

罗得女儿的计划-The Scheme of Lot’s Daughters

As Abraham looks out from the heights of Hebron over the now-desolate Jordan Plain—undoubtedly with awe, and with obvious concern for Lot—he apparently has no way of knowing whether Lot was sufficiently righteous to be saved. There is no record that Abraham ever again sees Lot, or even learns of his escape. Perhaps it is best that Abraham never knows of Lot’s end in life, which is characterized by haunting fear, reclusion, and apparent dissoluteness. That God had ever saved Lot in the first place may have been a monument to his everlasting mercy, or perhaps a testimony to the high regard in which God held Abraham. What follows is the last historical record of Lot. Strangely, it involves a somewhat bizarre scheme on the part of Lot’s two daughters to bear children by their father. The motive for their scheme appears to be legitimate enough, but under normal circumstances their acts of incest would be unquestionably immoral. And although the record indicates that Lot was unaware of his involvement in the plan, it is all made possible by his apparent willingness to let his daughters get him drunk. Of continuing historical significance are the two sons born as a result of this incestuous relationship and the people who descend from them. Moab will become father of the Moabites, who will first settle northeast of the Dead Sea between the Jabbok and the Arnon rivers, but will later be driven out by the Amorites to an area south of the Arnon. Ben-Ammi (Ammon) will become father of the Ammonites, who will be migratory and marauding Molek-worshipers in the land between the Jabbok and the Arnon. Both nations will come into conflict repeatedly with Abraham’s descendants, all as a result of the events which now unfold.

Smith, F. LaGard. The Daily Bible® - In Chronological Order (NIV®) . Harvest House Publishers. Kindle 版本.

《创世记》

[19:30] 罗得因为怕住在琐珥,就同他两个女儿从琐珥上去,住在山里;他和两个女儿住在一个洞里。

[19:31] 大女儿对小女儿说:「我们的父亲老了,地上又无人按著世上的常规进到我们这里。

[19:32] 来!我们可以叫父亲喝酒,与他同寝。这样,我们好从他存留后裔。」

[19:33] 於是,那夜她们叫父亲喝酒,大女儿就进去和她父亲同寝;她几时躺下,几时起来,父亲都不知道。

[19:34] 第二天,大女儿对小女儿说:「我昨夜与父亲同寝。今夜我们再叫他喝酒,你可以进去与他同寝。这样,我们好从父亲存留后裔。」

[19:35] 於是,那夜她们又叫父亲喝酒,小女儿起来与她父亲同寝;她几时躺下,几时起来,父亲都不知道。

[19:36] 这样,罗得的两个女儿都从她父亲怀了孕。

[19:37] 大女儿生了儿子,给他起名叫摩押,就是现今摩押人的始祖。

[19:38] 小女儿也生了儿子,给他起名叫便亚米,就是现今亚扪人的始祖。

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