1月5日 – PERIOD OF THE PATRIARCHS (Ca. 2100–1525 B.C.)

今日阅读:创世记12-14章

今日经文分成四部分:第一部分是【亚伯兰的呼召-The Call of Abram】创世记12章1节至12章9节 [Gen.12:1-12:9] ;第二部分是【亚伯兰在埃及蒙羞-Abram Dishonors Himself in Egypt】创世记12章10节至12章20节 [Gen. 12:10-12:20](按年代顺序);第三部分是【亚伯兰和罗得分开-Separation of Abram and Lot】创世记13章1节至13章18节 [Gen.13:1-13:18];第四部分是【国王的失败-Defeat of the Kings】创世记14章1节至14章20节 [Gen.14:1-14:20]。

亚伯兰的呼召-The Call of Abram

With the life of Abram a new chapter in the history of God’s dealings with mankind begins. God’s presence in Abram’s life does not appear to be based upon any special meritorious qualities that Abram himself might possess, but simply because God chooses him as the man through whom he will bless all of mankind.

Abram lives at a time when in the western part of the Fertile Crescent the Egyptian Empire is in its golden age during the Twelfth Dynasty. In the eastern part of the crescent, the Sumerians have controlled the area from their capital at Ur. Somewhere around 1950 B.C., however, the Sumerians are overthrown by the Elamites, who come from east of the Tigris River. The Elamite invasion causes such confusion and turmoil in this once-stable area that hordes of people from the Arabian desert are drawn into the more fertile area. These descendants of Ham from the west (or Amorites, as they are known) decisively take over the land and establish various capitals, the most notable of which is at Mari on the northern Euphrates River. This Amorite culture will flourish until about 1700 B.C., when it will be overrun by King Hammurabi of the Babylonians, who is remembered principally because of the code of laws which bears his name.

It is this Amorite culture with which Abram is most closely associated while in Harran. However, Abram himself is an Aramean and a descendant of Shem. Although the details are sketchy, it appears that Abram belongs to a rootless, unsettled, and seminomadic people who wander about among more settled people in search of food and water for the flocks which they tend. As the Genesis record continues, Abram and his clan will be seen wandering throughout Canaan in this very fashion.

The life of Abram, however, is more than a historical narrative about a Semitic Aramean wandering throughout Canaan. It is a life which will later be praised as an outstanding example of faith in God. With his father, Terah, now dead, and himself middle-aged, Abram is called by God to leave his homeland, his tribe, and his father’s family in order to journey 300 miles to a land about which he knows very little. Once Abram arrives in the land, God promises Abram that he will give the land not to Abram but to his offspring; and this is promised despite the fact that the land is already occupied by the Canaanites. Yet Abram believes God’s promise and continually worships God.

As the Genesis record continues, it appears that God had already called Abram at an earlier time, which other Scripture indicates had taken place when Abram was still in his former homeland. But here God reaffirms the call and covenants a sevenfold promise both to Abram and, through him, to all peoples of the world.

《创世记》

[12:1] 耶和华对亚伯兰说:「你要离开本地、本族、父家,往我所要指示你的地去。

[12:2] 我必叫你成为大国。我必赐福给你,叫你的名为大;你也要叫别人得福。

[12:3] 为你祝福的,我必赐福与他;那咒诅你的,我必咒诅他。地上的万族都要因你得福。」

[12:4] 亚伯兰就照著耶和华的吩咐去了;罗得也和他同去。亚伯兰出哈兰的时候年七十五岁。

[12:5] 亚伯兰将他妻子撒莱和侄儿罗得,连他们在哈兰所积蓄的财物、所得的人口,都带往迦南地去。他们就到了迦南地。

[12:6] 亚伯兰经过那地,到了示剑地方、摩利橡树那里。那时迦南人住在那地。

[12:7] 耶和华向亚伯兰显现,说:「我要把这地赐给你的后裔。」亚伯兰就在那里为向他显现的耶和华筑了一座坛。

[12:8] 从那里他又迁到伯特利东边的山,支搭帐棚;西边是伯特利,东边是艾。他在那里又为耶和华筑了一座坛,求告耶和华的名。

[12:9] 后来亚伯兰又渐渐迁往南地去。

亚伯兰在埃及蒙羞-Abram Dishonors Himself in Egypt

Having seen that Abram is a man of great faith, who trusted God enough to move to an unknown land, it comes as somewhat of a disappointment to learn that Abram can also be a man of great moral weakness. This insight comes out of an incident which takes place in Egypt, where Abram will take his family because of a famine in Canaan. Even at 65 years of age, Abram’s wife, Sarai, is less than middle-aged and still beautiful, especially in the eyes of the Egyptians, who would be attracted by Sarai’s presumably fair complexion. Fearful that the Egyptian men will be attracted enough by her beauty to kill him in order to have Sarai, Abram asks Sarai to represent herself as his sister, if necessary. Sarai is in fact a half-sister to Abram, since both have the same father. But asking Sarai to join him in a deception which could result in a sacrifice of her honor is clearly an indication of weakness in Abram’s character. And Abram’s failure to trust God to deliver him out of any trouble that might result from his being completely truthful shows that Abram’s faith is still a matter of personal struggle.

《创世记》

[12:10] 那地遭遇饥荒。因饥荒甚大,亚伯兰就下埃及去,要在那里暂居。

[12:11] 将近埃及,就对他妻子撒莱说:「我知道你是容貌俊美的妇人。

[12:12] 埃及人看见你必说:『这是他的妻子』,他们就要杀我,却叫你存活。

[12:13] 求你说,你是我的妹子,使我因你得平安,我的命也因你存活。」

[12:14] 及至亚伯兰到了埃及,埃及人看见那妇人极其美貌。

[12:15] 法老的臣宰看见了她,就在法老面前夸奖她。那妇人就被带进法老的宫去。

[12:16] 法老因这妇人就厚待亚伯兰,亚伯兰得了许多牛、羊、骆驼、公驴、母驴、仆婢。

[12:17] 耶和华因亚伯兰妻子撒莱的缘故,降大灾与法老和他的全家。

[12:18] 法老就召了亚伯兰来,说:「你这向我做的是甚么事呢?为甚么没有告诉我她是你的妻子?

[12:19] 为甚么说她是你的妹子,以致我把她取来要作我的妻子?现在你的妻子在这里,可以带她走吧。」

[12:20] 於是法老吩咐人将亚伯兰和他妻子,并他所有的都送走了。

亚伯兰和罗得分开-Separation of Abram and Lot

Abram has dishonored himself in Egypt, but he is not destined to remain in this valley of self-defeat and moral failure. As he and his nephew, Lot, come out of Egypt once again into Canaan, the renewal of Abram’s moral character will become evident. When grazing land becomes scarce and trouble develops between their herdsmen, Abram is put in a position where, as the elder patriarch, he can insist on his right to whatever territory he might choose. Rather than being self-assertive, however, Abram gives Lot first choice and accepts the consequences when Lot chooses the then-lush valley of the Jordan River instead of the less fertile hill country of Canaan. The solution to his conflict with Lot is not only both practical and gracious on Abram’s part but also further evidence of Abram’s faith in God. He had come to this area at God’s call and had been promised that his descendants would someday inherit the land. Yet despite the fact that his decision could well affect that inheritance, Abram sacrifices personal gain in favor of maintaining an important family relationship. While this incident gives reassuring insight into Abram’s depth of commitment to God, it also hints of a serious character flaw in Lot which will become more and more evident. The Genesis record begins the account of this incident as Abram and Lot bring their large clan of people, as well as herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, out of Egypt and into the Negev, or southern part of Canaan.

《创世记》

[13:1] 亚伯兰带著他的妻子与罗得,并一切所有的,都从埃及上南地去。

[13:2] 亚伯兰的金、银、牲畜极多。

[13:3] 他从南地渐渐往伯特利去,到了伯特利和艾的中间,就是从前支搭帐棚的地方,

[13:4] 也是他起先筑坛的地方;他又在那里求告耶和华的名。

[13:5] 与亚伯兰同行的罗得也有牛群、羊群、帐棚。

[13:6] 那地容不下他们;因为他们的财物甚多,使他们不能同居。

[13:7] 当时,迦南人与比利洗人在那地居住。亚伯兰的牧人和罗得的牧人相争。

[13:8] 亚伯兰就对罗得说:「你我不可相争,你的牧人和我的牧人也不可相争,因为我们是骨肉(原文是弟兄)。

[13:9] 遍地不都在你眼前吗?请你离开我:你向左,我就向右;你向右,我就向左。」

[13:10] 罗得举目看见约旦河的全平原,直到琐珥,都是滋润的,那地在耶和华未灭所多玛、蛾摩拉以先如同耶和华的园子,也像埃及地。

[13:11] 於是罗得选择约旦河的全平原,往东迁移;他们就彼此分离了。

[13:12] 亚伯兰住在迦南地,罗得住在平原的城邑,渐渐挪移帐棚,直到所多玛。

[13:13] 所多玛人在耶和华面前罪大恶极。

[13:14] 罗得离别亚伯兰以后,耶和华对亚伯兰说:「从你所在的地方,你举目向东西南北观看;

[13:15] 凡你所看见的一切地,我都要赐给你和你的后裔,直到永远。

[13:16] 我也要使你的后裔如同地上的尘沙那样多,人若能数算地上的尘沙才能数算你的后裔。

[13:17] 你起来,纵横走遍这地,因为我必把这地赐给你。」

[13:18] 亚伯兰就搬了帐棚,来到希伯仑幔利的橡树那里居住,在那里为耶和华筑了一座坛。

国王的失败-Defeat of the Kings

With Lot settling near Sodom, a city of the Jordan Plain near the Dead Sea, and Abram settling to the west in Hebron, not far south of modern Jerusalem, the Genesis record shows the transformation of Abram from a wandering Hebrew patriarch, concerned mostly with finding sustenance for his people and herds, into a courageous warrior. It all happens in the context of political and military turmoil to the east of Hebron—rather far removed from Abram in both distance and seeming importance. For some 12 to 15 years a power struggle has been taking place among various kings of the East, among whom King Kedorlaomer of Elam has remained the strongest. When five kings in the Dead Sea region join to oppose the eastern federation, Kedorlaomer gathers his three allies for a punitive foray into the Valley of Siddim, which surrounds the Dead Sea. Not only do the kings of the eastern federation defeat the local kings, but they also sack Sodom and Gomorrah and take away the inhabitants of those cities. Among the hostages are Abram’s nephew, Lot, and his family, who by this time have taken up residence in Sodom. When word of Lot’s capture reaches Abram, he responds quickly and unselfishly by gathering a small force of men and setting out to rescue his captive relatives. Daring to challenge a much larger force of trained soldiers, Abram and his men execute a surprise attack during the night, completely routing the enemy and liberating Lot and his family. As Abram is returning from this exciting venture, he is met and welcomed by King Melchizedek of Salem, probably the ancient name of the city known today as Jerusalem. When Melchizedek pays honor to Abram’s heroism by feeding Abram and his men, Abram responds by giving Melchizedek a tenth of all they are carrying. This act will be more fully explained by subsequent text, but suffice it to say now that Abram recognizes Melchizedek not only as a king but also as a priest in the service of the same true and living God which Abram himself worships. The Genesis record begins now with the background leading to Abram’s dramatic rescue of Lot.

Smith, F. LaGard. The Daily Bible® - In Chronological Order (NIV®) . Harvest House Publishers. Kindle 版本.

《创世记》

[14:1] 当暗拉非作示拿王,亚略作以拉撒王,基大老玛作以拦王,提达作戈印王的时候,

[14:2] 他们都攻打所多玛王比拉、蛾摩拉王比沙、押玛王示纳、洗扁王善以别,和比拉王;比拉就是琐珥。

[14:3] 这五王都在西订谷会合;西订谷就是盐海。

[14:4] 他们已经事奉基大老玛十二年,到十三年就背叛了。

[14:5] 十四年,基大老玛和同盟的王都来在亚特・律加宁,杀败了利乏音人,在哈麦杀败了苏西人,在沙微基列亭杀败了以米人,

[14:6] 在何利人的西珥山杀败了何利人,一直杀到靠近旷野的伊勒・巴兰。

[14:7] 他们回到安・密巴,就是加低斯,杀败了亚玛力全地的人,以及住在哈洗逊他玛的亚摩利人。

[14:8] 於是所多玛王、蛾摩拉王、押玛王、洗扁王,和比拉王(比拉就是琐珥)都出来,在西订谷摆阵,与他们交战,

[14:9] 就是与以拦王基大老玛、戈印王提达、示拿王暗拉非、以拉撒王亚略交战;乃是四王与五王交战。

[14:10] 西订谷有许多石漆坑。所多玛王和蛾摩拉王逃跑,有掉在坑里的,其余的人都往山上逃跑。

[14:11] 四王就把所多玛和蛾摩拉所有的财物,并一切的粮食都掳掠去了;

[14:12] 又把亚伯兰的侄儿罗得和罗得的财物掳掠去了。当时罗得正住在所多玛。

[14:13] 有一个逃出来的人告诉希伯来人亚伯兰;亚伯兰正住在亚摩利人幔利的橡树那里。幔利和以实各并亚乃都是弟兄,曾与亚伯兰联盟。

[14:14] 亚伯兰听见他侄儿(原文是弟兄)被掳去,就率领他家里生养的精练壮丁三百一十八人,直追到但,

[14:15] 便在夜间,自己同仆人分队杀败敌人,又追到大马士革北边的何把,

[14:16] 将被掳掠的一切财物夺回来,连他侄儿罗得和他的财物,以及妇女、人民也都夺回来。

[14:17] 亚伯兰杀败基大老玛和与他同盟的王回来的时候,所多玛王出来,在沙微谷迎接他;沙微谷就是王谷。

[14:18] 又有撒冷王麦基洗德带著饼和酒出来迎接;他是至高神的祭司。

[14:19] 他为亚伯兰祝福,说:「愿天地的主、至高的神赐福与亚伯兰!

[14:20] 至高的神把敌人交在你手里,是应当称颂的!」亚伯兰就把所得的拿出十分之一来,给麦基洗德。

小编:Lydia 小梨🍐& Ryan 小芮荔枝

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